THE BATCH33 ( JOURNEY OF SUCCESS )

ترحب إدارة المنتدى بكافة المقترحات التي يتقدم بها الأعضاء من أجل تطوير و تحسين المنتدى .. و نعدكم بعمل المستطاع لتلبية مقترحاتكم، مع فائق الشكر و التقدير ... إدارة المنتدى
لقد تم مؤخرا ًنشر كتاب (فلك الشيطان) و الذي ألفه زميلنا من الدفعه الكاتب / مجلي الجرباني و الكتاب متواجد في مكتبات خالد ابن الوليد في التحرير و الدائري
للراغبين في وضع أخبار جديده للدفعه إرسال رسالة إلى بسام المردحي المتواجد في المنتدى و شكراً.... إدارة المنتدى

أهلا وسهلا بك زائرنا الكريم, أنت لم تقم بتسجيل الدخول بعد! يشرفنا أن تقوم بالدخول أو التسجيل إذا رغبت بالمشاركة في المنتدى

Environment English Learner Resources

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1default Environment English Learner Resources في 20/2/2011, 5:43 pm

Environment English Learner Resources

As an Environment English learner, you are interested in learning English to live in an English speaking country or environment. You need to be able to pronounce well, know idioms, phrasal verbs and slang. Here are some recommend resources to help you learn the most important aspects of English for your style of English learning.
Intonation and Stress: Key to Understanding
This feature takes a look at how intonation and stress influence the way English is spoken and how paying attention to this important factor can improve your pronunciation immediately - no kidding!
How to Write a Resume
Writing a Resume - curriculum vitae or CV - in English can be quite different than in your native tongue. This "how to" helps you develop a Standard English resume.
How To Increase Specific Vocabulary
This "how to" focuses on a basic strategy for increasing vocabulary in specific subject areas through the use of a vocabulary tree.
Phonetics: Introduction
An introduction and reference guide to the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).
British / American Translations
Use this handy tool to select a word either in British or American English and get the 'translation' in the other English version!
10/05/00-English Pronunciation Practice
Good pronunciation depends on the ability to accent the correct words and successfully use intonation to make sure you are understood. This feature includes exercises to help you improve your pronunciation through the correct use of word stress.
01/27/01-Review: American Accent Training
American Accent Training by Ann Cook and published by Barron's provides a self-study course that is sure to improve any advanced level student's pronunciation. This package is especially interesting to non-native English speakers living in the USA or Canada.
01/11/98 - Reference: Phrasal Verbs
A comprehensive guide to the most commonly used English phrasal verbs
April Fool's Day Idiom Quiz
Try out this idiom quiz and see if you can spot the "fools".
Sports Idioms
Improve your understanding of sports idioms that are commonly used in American English.
01/12/01-English Tenses Timeline
This timeline tenses chart provides a handy visual reference sheet to English tenses and their relationship to the past, present and future. Included you will find active, passive, simple and continuous forms positioned according to their occurrence in time.
01/07/00-Setting ESL Objectives
knowing exactly what you want is half the battle and can dramatically improve your learning curve.
11/02/00-Grammar Terminology
This feature presents an extract with a follow-up guide giving examples of the most important grammar terminology. By quickly reviewing this reference sheet, you can quickly brush-up your or your class' understanding of key grammar terminology, while at the same time reviewing some basic grammar concepts.
Grammar Resources
Handy one page with links to all the most important grammar resources on the site.
New posts to the English as 2nd Language forums:
Inept with listening comprehensionyellow winetense difference





Intonation and Stress: Key to Understanding
This feature takes a look at how intonation and stress influence the way English is spoken and how paying attention to this important factor can improve your pronunciation immediately - no kidding!



Say this sentence aloud and count how many seconds it takes.

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.

Time required? Probably about 5 seconds. Now, try speaking this sentence aloud.

He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.

Time required? Probably about 5 seconds.

Wait a minute the first sentence is much shorter than the second sentence!

The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance
He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening

You are only partially right!


This simple exercise makes a very important point about how we speak and use English. Namely, English is considered a stressed language while many other languages are considered syllabic. What does that mean? It means that, in English, we give stress to certain words while other words are quickly spoken (some students say eaten!). In other languages, such as French or Italian, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length).

Many speakers of syllabic languages don't understand why we quickly speak, or swallow, a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages each syllable has equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English however, spends more time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding over the other, less important, words.

Let's look at a simple example: the modal verb "can". When we use the positive form of "can" we quickly glide over the can and it is hardly pronounced.

They can come on Friday . (stressed words underlined)

On the other hand, when we use the negative form "can't" we tend to stress the fact that it is the negative form by also stressing "can't".

They can't come on Friday .

As you can see from the above example the sentence, "They can't come on Friday" is longer than "They can come on Friday" because both the modal "can't" and the verb "come" are stressed.

So, what does this mean for my speaking skills?

Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which we do not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as
" Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter
" (most) principal verbs e.g. visit, construct
" Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting
" Adverbs e.g. often, carefully


Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as
" Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few
" Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were
" Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite
" Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as
" Pronouns e.g. they, she, us

Let's return to the beginning example to demonstrate how this affects speech.

The beautiful l Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. (14 syllables)

He can come on Sunday s as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening. (22 syllables)

Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are 5 stressed words in each sentence. From this example, you can see that you needn't worry about pronouncing every word clearly to be understood (we native speakers certainly don't). You should however, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly.

Now, do some listening comprehension or go speak to your native English-speaking friends and listen to how we concentrate on the stressed words rather than giving importance to each syllable. You will soon find that you can understand and communicate more because you begin to listen for (and use in speaking) stressed words. All those words that you thought you didn't understand are not crucial for understanding the sense or making yourself understood. Stressed words are the key to excellent pronunciation and understanding of English.

I hope this short introduction to the importance of stress in English will help you to improve your understanding and speaking skills.




How to Write a Resume
Writing a Resume - curriculum vitae or CV - in English can be quite different than in your native tongue. This "how to" helps you develop a standard English resume.

How To Write Resume in English
Writing a resume in English can be very different than in your native tongue. The following how to outlines a standard resume format.
Difficulty Level: Hard Time Required: 2 hours
________________________________________
Here's How:
1. First, take notes on your work experience - both paid and unpaid, full time and part time. Write down your responsibilities, job title and company information. Include everything!
2. Take notes on your education. Include degree or certificates, major or course emphasis, school names and courses relevant to career objectives.
3. Take notes on other accomplishments. Include membership in organizations, military service and any other special accomplishments.
4. From the notes, choose which skills are transferable (skills that are similar) to the job you are applying for - these are the most important points for your resume.
5. Begin resume by writing your full name, address, telephone number, fax and email at the top of the resume.
6. Write an objective. The objective is a short sentence describing what type of work you hope to obtain.
7. Begin work experience with your most recent job. Include the company specifics and your responsibilities - focus on the skills you have identified as transferable.
8. Continue to list all of your work experience job by job progressing backwards in time. Remember to focus on skills that are transferable.
9. Summarize your education, including important facts (degree type, specific courses studied) that are applicable to the job you are applying for.
10. Include other relevant information such as languages spoken, computer programming knowledge etc. under the heading: Additional Skills
11. Finish with the phrase: REFERENCES Available upon request
12. Your entire resume should ideally not be any longer than one page. If you have had a number of years of experience specific to the job you are applying for, two pages are also acceptable.
13. Spacing: ADDRESS (center of page in bold) OBJECTIVE double space EXPERIENCE double space EDUCATION double space ADDITIONAL SKILLS double-space REFERENCES. Left align everything except name/address.

Tips:
14. Use dynamic action verbs such as: accomplished, collaborated, encouraged, established, facilitated, founded, managed, etc.
15. Do NOT use the subject "I", use tenses in the past. Except for your present job. Example: Conducted routine inspections of on site equipment
How To Increase Specific Vocabulary
This "how to" focuses on a basic strategy for increasing vocabulary in specific subject areas through the use of a vocabulary tree.

How To Increase Specific Vocabulary
Improving vocabulary skills requires constant attention. This "how to" focuses on a basic strategy for increasing vocabulary in specific subject areas through the use of a vocabulary tree.
Difficulty Level: Average Time Required: Varies
________________________________________
Here's How:
1. Choose a subject area that interests you very much.
2. Write a short introduction to the subject trying to use as many vocabulary words concerning the subject as possible.
3. Using your introduction, arrange the principle ideas concerning the subject into a vocabulary tree.
4. To create a vocabulary tree, put the subject at the center of a piece of paper.
5. Around the central subject, put the principle areas relating to the subject. Example - verbs, descriptive adjectives, where, etc.
6. In each of these categories, write the appropriate vocabulary. If you need to, write sub-categories.
7. Create the same vocabulary tree in your native language
8. Your native language tree will be much more detailed. Use this native language tree as a reference point to look up new words and fill in your English tree.
9. Rewrite your introductory essay concerning the subject taking advantage of the new vocabulary learned.
10. To make this vocabulary active, practice reading your essay aloud until you can present it by memory.
11. Ask a friend or fellow classmate to listen to your presentation and ask you questions about the subject.



Tips:
12. Remember that vocabulary goes from passive knowledge to active knowledge - this means that you need to repeat a word often before it becomes active vocabulary.
13. Be patient with yourself, it takes time for this process to work.
14. Try to always learn vocabulary in groups of words instead of random lists. In this manner, words are related to each other and are more likely to remembered over the long-term.


How To Increase Specific Vocabulary
This "how to" focuses on a basic strategy for increasing vocabulary in specific subject areas through the use of a vocabulary tree.
Phonetics: Introduction
An introduction and reference guide to the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).
British / American Translations
Use this handy tool to select a word either in British or American English and get the 'translation' in the other English version!
10/05/00-English Pronunciation Practice
Good pronunciation depends on the ability to accent the correct words and successfully use intonation to make sure you are understood. This feature includes exercises to help you improve your pronunciation through the correct use of word stress.
01/27/01-Review: American Accent Training
American Accent Training by Ann Cook and published by Barron's provides a self-study course that is sure to improve any advanced level student's pronunciation. This package is especially interesting to non-native English speakers living in the USA or Canada.
01/11/98 - Reference: Phrasal Verbs
A comprehensive guide to the most commonly used English phrasal verbs
April Fool's Day Idiom Quiz
Try out this idiom quiz and see if you can spot the "fools".
Sports Idioms
Improve your understanding of sports idioms that are commonly used in American English.
01/12/01-English Tenses Timeline
This timeline tenses chart provides a handy visual reference sheet to English tenses and their relationship to the past, present and future. Included you will find active, passive, simple and continuous forms positioned according to their occurrence in time.
01/07/00-Setting ESL Objectives
Knowing exactly what you want is half the battle and can dramatically improve your learning curve.
11/02/00-Grammar Terminology
This feature presents an extract with a follow-up guide giving examples of the most important grammar terminology. By quickly reviewing this reference sheet, you can quickly brush-up your or your class' understanding of key grammar terminology, while at the same time reviewing some basic grammar concepts.
Grammar Resources
Handy one page with links to all the most important grammar resources on the site.

How To Increase Specific Vocabulary
Improving vocabulary skills requires constant attention. This "how to" focuses on a basic strategy for increasing vocabulary in specific subject areas through the use of a vocabulary tree.
Difficulty Level: Average Time Required: Varies
________________________________________
Here's How:
1. Choose a subject area that interests you very much.
2. Write a short introduction to the subject trying to use as many vocabulary words concerning the subject as possible.
3. Using your introduction, arrange the principle ideas concerning the subject into a vocabulary tree.
4. To create a vocabulary tree, put the subject at the center of a piece of paper.
5. Around the central subject, put the principle areas relating to the subject. Example - verbs, descriptive adjectives, where, etc.
6. In each of these categories, write the appropriate vocabulary. If you need to, write sub-categories.
7. Create the same vocabulary tree in your native language
8. Your native language tree will be much more detailed. Use this native language tree as a reference point to look up new words and fill in your English tree.
9. Rewrite your introductory essay concerning the subject taking advantage of the new vocabulary learned.
10. To make this vocabulary active, practice reading your essay aloud until you can present it by memory.
11. Ask a friend or fellow classmate to listen to your presentation and ask you questions about the subject.

Tips:
1. Remember that vocabulary goes from passive knowledge to active knowledge - this means that you need to repeat a word often before it becomes active vocabulary.
2. Be patient with yourself, it takes time for this process to work.
3. Try to always learn vocabulary in groups of words instead of random lists. In this manner, words are related to each other and are more likely to remembered over the long-term.


Reference Guide to Phonetic Symbols
As you probably know, phonetic symbols are a great help when it comes to learning to pronounce English words correctly. Any time you open a dictionary, you can find the correct pronunciation of words you don't know by looking at the phonetic pronunciation that follows the word. Unfortunately, learning the phonetic alphabet is not always the easiest thing to do.

This week's feature includes a phonetic chart with the majority of basic sounds in English. In English, as you certainly know, many words can have the same pronunciation but be written differently with different meanings. For example "to, two, and too" which all have the phonetic transcription /tu/. Sometimes, words can be written similarly but have different pronunciations as in the "ough" combinations thought, though, bough, and through. Another factor in pronunciation is the how the word is stressed. Understanding the phonetic alphabet can greatly simplify the learning process, especially for students who do not have the opportunity to work with a teacher.

Following the chart is an example of a text that has been transcribed in to phonetics. Notice how the text, as it would be spoken, differs from how each word might be transcribed individually. This is principally due to two factors; elision and unstressed syllables. I will discuss these two factors in an upcoming feature. For now, becoming familiar with the phonetic alphabet is plenty



British to American / American to British
Use the following drop-down list to find the American English equivalent of these British Expressions.

American to British
Use the following drop-down list to find the British English equivalent of these American English words.

More Vocabulary


English Pronunciation Practice
Practice with Pronunciation Using English is a stress-timed language and, as such, good pronunciation depends a lot on the ability to accent the correct words and successfully use intonation to make sure you are understood. Simply put, spoken English stress the principal elements in a sentence - content words - and quickly glides over the less important words - function words. Nouns, principal verbs, adjectives and adverbs are all content words. Pronouns, articles, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions are function words and are pronounced quickly moving towards the more important words. This quality of quickly gliding over less important words is also known as 'connected speech'. For more information on the basics of the stress-timed nature of English, please refer to:
Intonation and Stress: Key to Understanding
This feature takes a look at how intonation and stress influence the way English is spoken.
How to Improve Your Pronunciation
This "how to" focuses on improving your pronunciation through the recognition of the "time-stressed" character of English.
I am continually surprised to see how much my students' pronunciation improves when they focus reading sentences focusing on only pronouncing the 'stressed' words well! This feature includes practical exercises to improve your pronunciation skills by improving the stress-timed character of your pronunciation when speaking in full sentences.
Some Examples
Take a look at the following sentences and then click on the audio symbol to listen to the examples showing the difference between the sentences spoken:
1. In a plain manner, focusing on the 'correct' pronunciation of each word - much as some students do when trying to pronounce well.
2. In the natural, manner with content words being stressed and function words receiving little stress.
Example Sentences

" Alice was writing a letter when her friend came through the door and told her she was going to leave on holiday.
" I had studying for about an hour when the telephone rang.
" Fast automobiles make dangerous friends.
" If you can wait for a moment, the doctor will be with you shortly.
" I'd like a steak, please.
With these examples in mind, go through the following exercises to improve your own pronunciation skills by improving your understanding of the stress-timed nature of English. Believe me, if you do these exercises, you will be amazed at how quickly your pronunciation improves!!
Pronunciation Exercises 1
Pronunciation Exercise



Pronunciation Review - American Accent Training by Ann Cook
American Accent Training by Ann Cook and published by Barron's provides a self study course that is sure to improve any advanced level student's pronunciation. This course includes a course book and five audio CDs. The book includes all the exercises, quiz material and reference material that are found on the audio CDs. In this way, learners follow their course by reading, listening and repeating materials that are oral in nature, but also provided in print.
The course takes what is termed a 'pure-sound' approach to learning standard American pronunciation. To put it simply, this course focuses on learning the 'music' of English as it spoken in the USA. The stress-timed nature of English is put emphasized with correct intonation, stress and liaison used to develop natural sounding speech patterns. These speech patterns are then combined with specific vowel and consonant patterns in connected speech in exercises which lead to improved, natural American sounding, pronunciation.
Here is a rough overview of how American Accent Training is developed:
" Introduction to American Intonation
This section helps the learner become aware of the music of English as it is spoken in America. Students learn about intonation and liaison.
" Refining your pronunciation - specific pronunciation problems including various vowel and consonant sounds.
" Nationality Guides - these guides help specific nationalities with particular problems arising from their linguistic background. The nationality guides include:
" Chinese
" Japanese
" Spanish
" Indian
" Russian
" French
" German
" Korean
" Periodic diagnostic analysis and continuing review and expansion throughout the package
A Nice Extra Feature
For those studying American Accent Training on their own, a toll-free telephone tutoring number or the website at http://www.americanaccent.com provides a referral to a qualified telephone analyst. The diagnostic analysis is designed to evaluate your speech patterns to let you know where your accent is standard and nonstandard.
American Accent Training is a wonderful package that will surely help those who really want to improve their pronunciation. It is very thorough, and although presented in a light-hearted manner, American Accent Training presents a serious tool for advanced English speakers and ESL students determined to learn to speak with an American accent.
I would highly recommend this package only to learners who live, or want to live, in the United States or Canada. Furthermore, learners should also be advanced level readers to be able to truly take advantage of all this package has to offer. If you are a casual English learner, or interested in English for taking holidays or communicating with other non-native speakers, this package is probably too extensive for you. However, if you DO want to sound like an American, then this package is sure to provide you with all the tools you need.
Phrasal Verbs Reference
The following table is an alphabetical reference chart of the most commonly used English phrasal verbs with following explanations. You should remember that native speakers of English tend to use phrasal verbs in everyday conversation and generally reserve one-word verbs (i.e. "investigate" instead of "look into") for more formal occasions such as business letters etc.

Please note that all phrasal verbs marked by an asterisk (*) are NON-separable verbs (i.e. the preposition MUST follow the main verb. For example: I called on Dan NOT I called Dan on!). Verbs that are not marked by an asterisk (*) are separable verbs (i.e. the preposition may or may not follow the main verb. For example: I brought the children up OR I brought up the children).
IMPORTANT
Remember that separable phrasal verbs using a pronoun as the object of the verb MUST be separated (I brought them up NOT I brought up them)
A Ask out Ask someone to go on a date
B Bring about cause
Bring up 1) rear children 2) mention or introduce a topic
C Call back Return a telephone call
Call in Ask to come to an official place for a special reason
Call off cancel
Call on* 1) visit 2) ask a student a question in class
Call up Call on the telephone
Catch up (with)* Reach the same position or level as someone
Check in* Register at a hotel
Check into* investigate
Check out 1) borrow a book from a library 2) investigate
Cheer up Make (someone) feel happier
Clean up Make clean and orderly
Come across* Find by chance
Cross out Draw a line through
Cut out Stop an annoying activity
D Do over repeat
Drop by* Visit informally
Drop in (on)* Visit informally
Drop off Leave something/someone somewhere
Drop out (of)* Stop going to school or class
F Figure out Find the answer by logic
Fill out Complete a form
Find out Discover information
Get along (with)* To have a good relationship with
Get back (from) 1) return from somewhere 2) receive again
Get in, get into* 1) enter a car 2) arrive
Get off* Leave any vehicle
Get on* Enter any vehicle
Get out of* 1) leave a car 2) avoid some unpleasant activity
Get over* Recover from an illness
Get through* finish
Get up* Arise from bed, a chair etc.
Give back Return something to someone
Give up Stop doing something
Go over* Review or check
Grow up* Become an adult
H Hand in Submit an assignment
Hang up 1) Stop a telephone conversation 2) put up clothes on a line or a hook
Have on Wear
K Keep out (of) Not enter
Keep up (with)* Stay at the same position or level
Kick out (of) Force (someone) to leave
L Look after* Take care of
Look into* Investigate
Look out (for)* Be careful
Look over Review or check
Look up Look for information in a reference book
M Make up 1) invent 2) do past work
N Name after Give a baby the name of someone else
P Pass away* Die
Pass out 1) distribute 2) lose consciousness
Pick out Select
Pick up 1) go to get someone 2) take in one's hand
Point out Call someone's attention to
Put away Remove to an appropriate place
Put back Return to original position
Put off Postpone
Put on Dress
Put out Extinguish a cigarette, fire
Put up with* Tolerate
R Run into Meet by chance
Run across Find by chance
Run out (of) Finish a supply of something
S Show up* Appear, come to
Shut off Stop a machine, equipment, light etc.
T Take after* Resemble
Take off 1) remove clothing 2) leave on a trip 3) leave the ground (aeroplane)
Take out 1) take someone on a date 2) remove
Take over Take control
Take up Begin a new activity
Tear down Demolish, reduce to nothing
Tear up Tear into many little pieces
Think over Consider
Throw away Discard; get rid of
Throw out Discard; get rid of
Throw up Vomit
Try on Put on clothing to see if it fits
Turn down Decrease volume
Turn in 1) submit classwork 2) go to bed
Turn off Stop a machine, equipment, light etc.
Turn on Start a machine, equipment, light etc.
Turn out Extinguish a light
Turn up Increase volume or intensity

April Fool's Day: Spot the Mistake
Today's feature is an April Fool's feature. In the United States, and many countries around the world, the first of April is a day to play jokes and fool people. Following this tradition, I'd like you to take a look at the following dialogue using many idiomatic expressions. Some of these idioms are correct, the others are false. See if you can spot the false idioms and replace them with correct idiomatic expressions. Idiomatic expressions are highlighted. At the end of the feature, you will find the correct version of the dialogue with the idiomatic expressions explained.

Mary: I'd really like to go see a film this evening. Would you like to come?
Tom: Sure, but let's not go see the Titanic. I hate blockbreaker films.
Mary: I know what you mean. Why don't we go see Major League Blues? I've heard it will make you bust your sides laughing.
Tom: Sounds good to me. What's it about?
Mary: Well, it's about a team that's hit the bottom of the garbage and has to hit the road for all of its 175 games.
Tom: I don't get it.
Mary: Well, the team loses its playing field because of construction contracts and the owner has to throw in the bathtub when he tries to sell it to another owner.
Tom: Seems like a strange idea for a movie to me…
Mary: The new owner decides he's going to make a killing by turning the team into the worst baseball team in history. He's a real wolf and thinks that if the team smells, the media will give it great coverage and he will be able to turn a nice profit by paying the bad players little and making all the money on off the roof advertising.
Tom: Yeah, that would make sense in this day and age. People really like to laugh at all "heroes". Just look at the President and all the scabs he is supposedly involved in.
Mary: By the side, Who do you believe? The President or the special Investigator?
Tom: Oh, I don't know the dick seems like he's trying to pull a quickly one on the public.
Mary: Yeah, I know what you mean. But remember where there's smoke there's flames….
Tom: It's really a shame as I think the President's really hit a home run with this presidency. As far as the small people are concerned, that is.
Mary: I think he's the best president we've had for a long time. Some people however, think that he isn't the greatest thing since sliced toast.
Tom: I guess you're right. Anyway, when shall we meet tonight?
Mary: Oh, how about 7.30 before the flicker.
Tom: Great, see you then.
Mary: Bye.

Wow, that was difficult, wasn't it? Here is the correct version of the text below. If you've found more than 3 incorrect idioms and have corrected them, I'd say you have a pretty good grasp (understanding) of common idioms!

Mary: I'd really like to go see a film this evening. Would you like to come?
Tom: Sure, but let's not go see the Titanic. I hate blockbreaker INCORRECT blockbuster (huge hits) films.
Mary: I know what you mean. Why don't we go see Major League Blues? I've heard it will make you CORRECT bust your sides laughing. (Laugh very hard)
Tom: Sounds good to me. What's it about?
Mary: Well, it's about the a team that's hit the bottom of the garbage INCORRECT bottom of the barrel (the very worst) and has to hit the road CORRECT (travel) for all of its 175 games.
Tom: I don't get it CORRECT (understand).
Mary: Well, the team loses its playing field because of construction contracts and the owner has to throw in the bathtub INCORRECT throw in the kitchen sink (include everything when selling something) when he tries to sell it to another owner.
Tom: Seems like a strange idea for a movie to me…
Mary: The new owner decides he's going to make a killing CORRECT (make a lot of money) by turning the team into the worst baseball team in history. He's a real wolf INCORRECT fox or shark (clever person) and thinks that if the team smells INCORRECT stinks (to be very bad), the media will give it great coverage and he will be able to turn a nice profit CORRECT (make a lot of money) by paying the bad players little and making all the money on off the roof INCORRECT off the wall (crazy) advertising.
Tom: Yeah, that would make sense in this day and age CORRECT (this period of history). People really like to laugh at all "heroes". Just look at the President and all the scabs he is supposedly involved in.
Mary: By the side INCORRECT by the way (something extra), Who do you believe? The President or the special Investigator?
Tom: Oh, I don't know the dick CORRECT (investigator) seems like he's trying to pull a quick one INCORRECT pull a fast one (to fool someone) on the public.
Mary: Yeah, I know what you mean. But remember where there's smoke there's flames INCORRECT where there's smoke there's fire (when there are a lot of rumors about something, there is probably some truth to the situation)….
Tom: It's really a shame as I think the President's really hit a home run CORRECT (do extremely well) with this presidency. As far as the small INCORRECT little (insignificant) people are concerned, that is.
Mary: I think he's the best president we've had for a long time. Some people however, think that he isn't the greatest thing since sliced toast INCORRECT greatest thing since sliced bread (a wonderful invention or person).
Tom: I guess you're right. Anyway, when shall we meet tonight?
Mary: Oh, how about 7.30 before the flick CORRECT (movie, film)
Tom: Great, see you then.
Mary: Bye.

I admit this was a very difficult exercise. But being April Fool's day I thought it might be fun for you to try. let me know what you think
English Tenses Timeline Chart
This timeline tenses chart provides a handy reference sheet to English tenses and their relationship to one another and the past, present and future. Conjugated verbs are highlighted in bold. Tenses which are rarely used in everyday conversation are marked by an asterik (*).
TIMELINE
SIMPLE ACTIVE SIMPLE PASSIVE PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS ACTIVE PROGRESSIVE / CONTINUOUS PASSIVE
PAST TIME
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She had already eaten when I arrived. The painting had been sold twice before it was destroyed.
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PAST PERFECT
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| I had been waiting for four hours when he finally arrived. The house had been being painted for over a month before they began to decorate the interior. *
I bought a new car last week. The book was written in 1876 by Frank Smith.
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PAST
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| I was watching TV when she arrived. The problem was being solved when I arrived late for class.
She has lived in California for many years. The company has been managed by Fred Jones for the last two years.
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PRESENT PERFECT
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| She has been working at Johnson's for six months. The students have been being taught for the last four hours. *
He works five days a week. Those shoes are made in Italy.
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PRESENT
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| I am working at the moment. The work is being done by Jim.

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PRESENT MOMENT
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FUTURE INTENTION
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V They are going to fly to New York tomorrow. The reports are going to be completed by the marketing department.
The sun will shine tomorrow. The food will be brought later.
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FUTURE SIMPLE
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V She will be teaching tomorrow at six o'clock. The rolls will be being baked at two. *
I will have completed the course by the end of next week. The project will have been finished by tomorrow afternoon.
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FUTURE PERFECT
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V She will have been working here for two years by the end of next month. The house will have been being built for six months by the time they finish. *
FUTURE TIME
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V
Other Helpful Tense Reference Links
Upper Level Grammar Resources
Lower Level Grammar Resources
Grammar Quizzes



Setting ESL Objectives
People learn English for many and extremely varied reasons. Taking these reasons, as well as language acquisition needs, into consideration when planning a class or individual instruction is crucial for a successful learning experience. This is probably as important for the student as for the teacher. When a student understands his/her reasons for learning English well, he can then better plan his learning strategy. In the classroom, he/she can help the teacher identify needs and desires. If the student is learning alone, he/she can find learning materials based on a better knowledge of what his/her objectives are.
Let's take a look at two of the more common reasons for learning English and what might work well for achieving learning goals. I'd like to improve my English in order to find a better job.
In this case, it is important to ask yourself the questions:
1. Will a certificate help the chances of getting a job?
2. Is job specific English required?
3. Who will I (the students) be speaking English with, native speakers or other English as a foreign language speakers?
Point 1: This is very important as the need for a certificate will dictate what is required learning: Grammar, Functional English, Writing Listening, etc. If a certificate is required the student should focus on improving specifics points required by the examination. For example, Cambridge's First Certificate exam will require the skill of sentence transformation, the TOEFL requires the skill of understanding US test taking skills (I'm not joking!).
Point 2: If job specific English is required, tasks should be more real-world orientated. If possible, tasks should also be based on the exact type of English required in the specific profession. For example: computer terminology for programming, presentation skills for management, etc.
Point 3: This is extremely important, as students who will be expected to speak English only with other non-native speakers should not have to worry as much about listening skills as those who will be expected to communicate principally with native speakers. An understanding of the culture (British, American, etc) might be important if the learner will be traveling and communicating in these countries. I'd like to improve my English as a hobby.
In this case, it is important to ask yourself the questions:
1. How will you (the students) be using the English? Communication, Reading, Using the Internet, etc.?
2. Do you (the students) enjoy typical task type activities? Or do you (they) prefer real-world activities?
3. How much do I (the students) want to improve my English? Do I (the students) want to just be able to travel and be understood? Do I (the students) want to be able to read James Joyce?
Point 1: This is of the utmost importance when deciding what type of activities should be pursued. If communication is most important, functional English will be preferable to grammar exercises. If reading Rolling Stone magazine is important, idiomatic language study will be required.
Point 2: This is basically a question of learning style and is very important. Involved students will always learn more in the long run than those who are bored. Is also important to remember that, if you are the teacher, imposing your learning preference on the class can, at times, deter effective learning.
Point 3: Understanding the desired language proficiency goal is probably one of the most important aspects of learning well. If the student desires to communicate basic needs while traveling, focusing on the correct use of the third conditional is beside the point. On the other hand, if students strive to higher levels of grammatical understanding, teachers need to accept that role-play games might not always be the best activity.
These are just a few of the most important questions that need to be asked when planning a learning strategy. This pragmatic approach to English learning is probably most effective when teaching adult learners, as there are generally no state imposed goals. Of course, when curriculum requirements are imposed by an outside source, it is important to construct a syllabus with an eye towards such requirements



Grammar Terminology Reference
Recognizing key grammar vocabulary
Understanding grammar terminology is necessary to follow grammar instruction. This is especially true in upper level ESL and EFL classes. This understanding is sometimes taken for granted and students who are not familiar with this terminology can have a hard time following the lesson. In order to help with this problem, this feature presents an extract with a follow-up guide giving examples of the most important terminology. By quickly reviewing this reference sheet, you can quickly brush-up your or your class' understanding of key grammar terminology, while at the same time reviewing some basic grammar concepts.
Each grammar terminology reference is presented in bold followed by a number. Explanations of these reference numbers follow at the end of the extract.
Extract: Frank Sinatra's Sublimely Ironic Crooning Style
Frank Sinatra (1) was one of the (2) most important representatives of the 'crooning' style of singing. When played in the background (3), this style of singing stirs an extremely emotional response. (4) However (5), on closer listening, Frank Sinatra's sublime (6) artistry not only triggers this emotional response, but (7) also brings about a sly smile as the listener recognizes the subtler ironies of his (Cool delivery.
It is this (9) often unique presentation which (10) calls for repeated listening. (11) Indeed, (12) Sinatra's perfect (13) mastery of vocal colors rewards careful listening with many surprises! (14) It can be rather (15) surprising to detect this ironic quality while Sinatra declares his love during one of his ballads.
What was the secret to Sinatra's depth of expression? (16) As my friend Jack told me. " (17) Sinatra's style may have been as smooth as silk on the surface, but it also carried the scars left by a life lived to the fullest." (17)
Terminology
1. Capital letter - use capital letters:
" to begin sentences
" with the first person subject pronoun "I"
" for all proper nouns including names, days of the week, month, names of institutions, etc.
" nationality adjectives (i.e., Italian)
" for the first letter in direct speech
2. Determiner: type - definite article
3. Subordinate clause - cannot stand alone
4. Main clause - can stand alone
5. Connective adverb - other examples include: firstly, finally, etc.
6. Adjective - modifying following noun
7. Connective conjunction - other examples include: and, or, etc.
8. Determiner: type - possessive adjective (also known as possessive pronoun)
9. Determiner: type - demonstrative adjective (including this, that, these, those)
10. Connective: relative pronoun
11. Period (US English), full stop (British English)
12. Comma
13. Ungradable adjective - these adjectives are already 'very' (Example: 'wonderful' means 'very good'. These adjectives can only be used with 'extreme' modifiers like absolutely, extremely, etc.)
14. Exclamation mark - used for emphasis
15. Modifier - adverb. Other examples include: pretty, very, quite, etc.
16. Question mark - used when asking questions
17. Quotation marks - used when employing direct speech
" Related Articles
" Grammar Terminology Quiz for ESL / EFL Classes
" Advanced English Grammar for ESL EFL Learners and Classes
" English Grammar Workbooks for ESL EFL Learners
" English Grammar Structures Quizzes and Tests for ESL EFL
" English Contractions - How to Use Contractions - Grammar For English ESL


Grammar Reference
The following grammar reference pages include charts, quizzes and other related resources. Use these pages to quickly review specific grammar points, or to introduce yourself to new topics.
Direct (Reported) Speech
Passive Voice

Saying 'No' Nicely
Contrasting Ideas

Stating Preferences
Giving Warning

Asking for Information
Offering Help

Making Suggestions
Giving Advice

English Tenses Timeline Chart
Relative Clauses: Introduction

Relative Clauses: Defining and Non-Defining Clauses
Relative Clauses: Relative Pronouns in Defining Clauses

Relative Clauses: Relative Pronouns in Non-Defining Clauses
Relative Clauses: Prepositions, Where, When and Why

Grammar Terminology Reference

TOEFL Practice - 1
Sentence Rewriting - 1

TOEFL Practice - 2
Sentence Rewriting - 2

TOEFL Practice - 3
Sentence Rewriting - 3

TOEFL Practice - 4
Sentence Rewriting - 4

TOEFL Practice - 5
Sentence Rewriting - 5

Adverb Clauses
Adverb Clauses with Time Expressions

Adverb Clauses Showing Oppostion
Adverb Clauses Expressing Conditions

English Verb Forms
Plural Formation

Adjectives
Adjective Placement Quiz

Adjective Placement
Adverbs

Contractions
Beginner Grammar

Lower Intermediate Grammar
Intermediate Grammar

Upper Intermediate Grammar
Advanced Grammar

Present Simple
Past Simple

Present Continuous
Present Perfect

Simple or Progressive Perfect?
Simple vs. Progressive

American/British
Basic Business Letters

Irregular Verbs Reference List
Reference list of most common phrasal verbs

Intonation and Stress: Keys to Understanding
Introduction to Phonetics with Reference Chart

Irregular Verbs - Interactive Quiz/Learning Tool
Conditionals 0, 1, 2, 3

Future Forms
Gerund or Infinitive: Interactive Quiz/Learning Tool

Modal Forms Overview
Must / Have to - Mustn't / Not Have to

Can / Be Able to
Passive Voice

Reported Speech
Beginners: What would you like? Making requests in a restaurant

Beginners: How are you? The verb "to be"
Beginners: What do you do? Simple Present

Beginners: "A, An and The", use of indefinite and definte articles
Beginners: ABC, the alphabet

Beginners: Some - Any
Beginners: Prepositions of time and place: at, in, to and on

Beginners: Here - There, This, These - That, Those
Adverb Clauses Showing Cause and Effect


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